To the best of our knowledge, this information is accurate and base upon accepted
technical practices. Non-Ferrous Fastener Inc. does not assume any liability
for the accuracy or completeness of this information.
The most abundant metal in the earth, aluminum is blueish and silvery-white,
very light, malleable, and ductile with high heat and electrical conductivity.
It is non-magnetic and one-third the weight of steel with good corrosion resistance
against certain chemicals and acids, but weak resistance against other elements
such as sea water. 2024-T4 is the most common grade, used for screws and bolts.
Other grades include 6061-T6 used for nuts and 7075-T6 used for lock washers.
Tensile strength: 37,000-75,000 PSI. heat treated.
Generally made from commercially pure, Grade 2 Titanium. It has high-strength
to weight ratio and bridges the design gap between aluminum and steel and offers
a combination of the most desirable properties of both. Ultimate tensile strength:
50,000 PSI., resistance to heat: 800 deg F continuous. Other grades include;
Grade 4, 6AL-4V and Grade 5. These grades have superior strength and corrosion
With the addition of chromium to iron, stainless steel is formed. The chromium
protects the iron against most corrosion or red-colored rust; thus the term “stainless” steel.
300 series stainless steel has approximately 18% chromium and 8% nickel. “18-8” is
used interchangeably to characterize fasteners made of 302, 302HQ, 303, 304,
305, 384, XM7, and other variables of these grades with close compositions. There
is little overall difference in corrosion resistance among the 18-8 types, but
slight differences in chemical composition do make certain grades more resistant
than others against particular chemicals or atmospheres. “18-8” has
superior corrosion resistance to 400 series stainless, is generally non-magnetic,
and is hardenable only by cold working. T316 grade has increased corrosion resistance
to chloride and sulfides with the addition of molybdenum and increased nickel.
Tensile strength: 100,000-125,000 PSI.
The most common alloy of copper, brass is two-thirds copper, one-third zinc.
It is non-magnetic with good strength and toughness, high electrical conductivity,
and an attractive lustrous finish. It has good corrosion resistance but not in
salt water. Brass is commonly used by the electrical and communications industries,
builder’s hardware, and some marine applications. Tensile strength: 55,000-65,000
An alloy made of 95% to 98% copper plus a small amount of silicon added for strength.
Small amounts of manganese and aluminum may also be added for strength, and lead
may be added for machineability. Silicon bronze is non-magnetic with a high degree
of thermal conductivity and high corrosion resistance against sea water, gases,
and sewage. It is often used by the utilities industry for pole line hardware
and switchgear equipment, mine sweeping, sewage disposal equipment, food machinery,
marine applications, plumbing and liquid handling. Surprisingly, silicon bronze
is only a low to moderate conductor of electricity, though it is a better conductor
Invented by the International Nickel Co. and composed basically of two-thirds
nickel, one-third copper, this alloy has good strength, excellent corrosion resistance
against salt water and in high temperatures, and is rather expensive. Tensile
strength: 70,000-130,000 PSI.
This expensive alloy has many of the same qualities or stainless steel, has excellent
resistance to sulfuric acid, with approximately 20% chromium, 34% nickel and
traces of tantalum and Columbian. Lock washers are not manufactured in this material.
Tensile strength: 100,000-150,000 PSI.
Although there are several variations of the Hastelloy® nickel alloy, Hastelloy® C-276
is by far the most widely used. Hastelloy® C-276 remains resilient in the
most corrosive environments such as in chemical processing, pollution control,
pulp and paper production, waste treatment and the recovery of "sour" natural
A nickel-molybdenum-chromium wrought alloy with low carbon content, Hastelloy® exhibits
excellent resistance in a wide variety of chemical process environments including
those with as ferric and cupric chlorides, hot contaminated organic and inorganic
media, chlorine, formic and acetic acids, acetic anhydride, and seawater and
A nickel-chromium alloy with good oxidation resistance at higher temperatures.
With good resistance in carburizing and chloride containing environments. Alloy
600 is a nickel-chromium alloy designed for use from cryogenic to elevated temperatures
in the range of 2000 deg F(1093 deg C). The high nickel content of the alloy
enables it to retain considerable resistance under reducing conditions and makes
it resistant to corrosion by a number of organic and inorganic compounds. The
nickel content gives it excellent resistance to chloride-ion stress-corrosion
cracking and also provides excellent resistance to alkaline solutions. Its chromium
content gives the alloy resistance to sulfur compounds and various oxidizing
environments. The chromium content of the alloy makes it superior to commercially
pure nickel under oxidizing conditions. In strong oxidizing solutions like hot,
concentrated nitric acid, 600 has poor resistance. Alloy 600 is relatively un-attacked
by the majority of neutral and alkaline salt solutions and is used in some caustic
environments. The alloy resists steam and mixtures of steam, air and carbon dioxide.
Alloy 600 is non-magnetic, has excellent mechanical properties and a combination
of high strength and good workability and is readily weldable. Alloy 600 exhibits
cold forming characteristics normally associated with chromium-nickel stainless
steels. Typical corrosion applications include titanium dioxide production (chloride
route), perchlorethylene syntheses, vinyl chloride monomer (VCM), and magnesium
chloride. Alloy 600 is used in chemical and food processing, heat treating, phenol
condensers, soap manufacture, vegetable and fatty acid vessels and many more.
To the best of our knowledge, this information is
accurate and base upon accepted technical practices. Non-Ferrous Fastener Inc.
does not assume any liability for the accuracy or completeness of this information.